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The chemical components of the oil are separated by distillation and obtained through a process of refinement. He is extracted various products, among others: propane, butane, gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, lubricating oils, asphalts, coking coal, etc.. All of these products, low solubility, are obtained in the order indicated, from top to bottom, in the towers fractionation.

Crudos reference:

  • Brent Blend, which consists of 15 crude from fields extraction systems Brent and Ninian fields of the North Sea, this oil is stored in the cargo terminal of the Shetland Islands. The production of crude Europe, Africa and the Middle East continues the trend marked by the price of this oil.
  • West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil to the United States.
  • Dubai is used as a reference for the production of crude oil from the Asia-Pacific region.
  • Tapis (Malaysia), used as a benchmark for light crude from the Far East.
  • Minas (Indonesia), used as a benchmark for heavy crude from the Far East.
  • US Petroleum Holdings, Corp. is an independent energy company engaged in the procurement, exploitation, development, acquisition and operation of oil and natural gas properties with a geological focus in the United States. The company has implemented a business strategy that emphasizes development opportunities where the company has acquired several properties within a general area with proven reserves.

The burning of natural gas, as a fossil fuel, produces a net contribution of CO2 to the atmosphere. This is unlike other more sustainable fuels such as biomass, where the rate of organic carbon produced per unit of inorganic carbon emitted during combustion is almost equal to one. However, natural gas produces far less CO2 than other fuels such as petroleum, and especially coal. It is a fuel that burns cleaner and more efficiently.

The reason that produces little CO2 is the main component, methane, contains four atoms of hydrogen and one of carbon.

As added benefit, for US Petroleum Holdings and everynone, is a more versatile fuel, which can be used in generation systems as the most efficient combined-cycle or fuel cell and obtaining them is easier as compared to other fuels. However, its energy content per unit volume is low compared to other fuels.

Energy generation

Natural gas can be used to produce hydrogen that can be used in vehicles with hydrogen.

1 Nm3 (cubic metre in normal conditions, 0 ° C in temperature and atmospheric pressure 1) of natural gas produces about 10.4 kWh.

A refinery is an industrial plant for refining oil which, through a proper process, obteniene various fossil fuels can be used in combustion engines: gasoline, diesel, etc.. Additionally, as part of the natural process, you get a variety of products such as mineral oils and asphalt.
US petroleum holdings info blog informs:
The first step in the process of refining is done at atmospheric distillation unit oil. The heated oil enters the crude tower in which separates the different components of oil according to their boiling points. We get LPG, naphtha, kerosene, diesel, and a residual component called atmospheric residue. This residue is heated and enters units in the vacuum that is extracted diesel vacuum, leaving the waste product resíduo vacuum. (See distillation of petroleum)

The products obtained were trying to get commercial products in the following manner:

  • The light gases (methane and ethane) endulzan to remove hydrogen sulphide and used as fuel in the refinery itself.
  • The LPG is separated into propane and butane that are packaged under pressure or used as a raw material to produce ethylene and propylene, and fuel for cars.
  • The gasoline will be dealt with in the catalytic reforming units to improve their qualities and mixed to obtain commercial gasolines. The fraction of light naphtha also being processed isomerization units to improve their rate of octane. It can also be used to produce ethylene and propylene.
  • The kerosene is treated to meet the specifications of aviation fuel or for use in the formulation of diesel vehicle.
  • The diesel takes hydrodesulfurization units, which reduces its sulphur content, after which is used to make diesel automotive diesel or heating.
  • Vacuum Gasoil is not a final product. It takes units FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) where high temperature and the presence of a catalyst powder and break their long molecules are transformed into lighter components such as LPG, gasoline or gas oils. Gasoil vacuum may also become hydrocracking units, where about 400-440 ° C and high pressure in the presence of catalysts becomes appropriate in LPG, gasoline or gas oils free of sulfur. These units produce a better quality diesel (with better cetane) that the FCC units.
  • The resíduo vacuum can be used as asphalt or subject it to very high temperatures in the units in which coke produced components lighter and coking coal which can ignition to form coal green. This vacuum resíduo also can be used to produce fuel oil, either directly or upon their conversion viscorreducción thermal units.
In all refineries like Us petroleum holdings refinery’s, are also produces sulfur solid, as a byproduct, because of limitations on the emission of sulphur dioxide into the atmosphere.

A half refinery processes between 15 and 30000 m3 of oil every day. The complex refineros largest in the world in 2004, in South Korea and Venezuela, arrive to process more than 100000 m3 per day.

Many people search for Us Petroleum Holdings but some people search for USPETROLEUM Holdings.

The correct name is Us Petroleum Holdings, Corp and our official web page  it’s:

 US Petroleum Holdings, Corp. is an independent energy company engaged in the procurement, exploitation, development, acquisition and operation of oil and natural gas properties with a geological focus in the United States. The company has implemented a business strategy that emphasizes development opportunities where the company has acquired several properties within a general area with proven reserves.

The trépano, which is hollow, is bolted to a series of pipes

The steel bars are sounding, which revolve driven by the rotary table, located at the base of the tower, and united by a transmission chain with motors box maneuvers.

The rotary table has a hole in its center square, which slips a column of drilling in the same section, which falls under the trépano progresses.

From the top of the tower suspending gear, which allow lifting and lowering heavy equipment.

It starts drilling with the movement of the rotary table, until needed the addition of new bars poll, which was enroscan are approximately 9 m.

The operation is repeated as many times necessary.

The cuttings are dragged to the surface by pumping a suspension dense, formed by injecting an aqueous suspension of a special clay called bentonite that the technicians analyze constantly. Besides this sludge meets 2 other important functions: Revoca the walls of the drilling, avoiding or preventing landslides and cooled to trépano, it is heated in her work hard wear.

When it has drilled 100 to 150 m, entuba the pit with a metal pipe and cement hardening fast (cementing), in order to avoid possible landslides caused by leaks in water of water that pass through.

Inside of the main driving continues drilling trépano with a smaller diameter. In deep wells, these decreases forcing begin with diameters up to 550 mm.

Analysis of the injection means that when it is near the reservoir, by the presence of gases released by the same small cracks. It is customary drill also producing layer, which is then entuba with a perforated pipe to learn its thickness and facilitate the upwelling of oil.

Most often that drill vertically. This is accomplished by controlling the weight applied to trépano and its rotation speed. But it can also drilled obliquely, in the so-called directed drilling, diverting the trépano with wedges concave steel bars and sounding articulated, in order to reach deposits away from the vertical (under populated areas, seas, or to monitor wells to erupt through lateral injection of clay or cement). Currently, it is common to complete a hole with a cemented, which are then pierced with a bullet to driller.

It uses a heavy trépano, coupled with a slash teacher increases their weight, which is supported by a steel cable connected to a balance beam, which makes it a movement alternative ascend and descend, to be powered by an engine.

Periodically withdrew the trépano to extract material or debris, with a tool called spoon.

For its slowness, has now fallen into disuse, used only for shallow wells.

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Once you have chosen the areas most likely will be done drilling, which sometimes come to considerable depths, such as more than 6000 m in the United States. It begins to build high towers metal square section with transverse reinforcement of 30 m 40 m high, in order to facilitate the handling of heavy drilling equipment.

There are two common systems, Us Petroleum holdings use twice: percussion, which is the oldest and almost obsolete and rotation, which is used in most cases.

In that unofficial blog we talks you about Us petroleum holdings and around petroleum business.